By William J. Hardcastle, Janet Mackenzie Beck
In the course of the international, there are phoneticians who've been prompted through the educating, study, and writings of John Laver. Many have labored with him individually, and lots of the participants to this ebook are individuals with whom he has had unique hyperlinks or whose involvement represents an appreciation of the breadth of Laver's pursuits. whereas the e-book is intended to be a tribute to John Laver, the subjects were selected to supply an summary of a few key matters in phonetics, with illuminating contributions from the most influential lecturers within the box. Contributing to this festschrift are William Hardcastle, Janet Mackenzie Beck, Peter Ladefoged, John J. Ohala, F. Gibbon, Anne Cutler, Mirjam Broersma, Helen Fraser, Peter F. MacNeilage, Barbara L. Davis, R. E. Asher, E. L. Keane, G. J. Docherty, P. Foulkes, Janet Fletcher, Catherine Watson, John neighborhood, Ailbhe N? Chasaide, Christer Gobl, John H. Esling, Jimmy G. Harris, and Francis Nolan.
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Extra info for A Figure of Speech: A Festschrift for John Laver
Conversely, there may be a drop in the rate of vibration during a voiced consonant when the flow is less, producing a lower pitch that may not be relevant. These points are illustrated in Fig. 1. , and Whatever buy you have in mind ... saying each of them with the same intonation pattern. As the parts of these sen tences in Fig. 1 show, there is a considerable difference between the beginning of buy (which is virtually level) and the beginning of pie (which descends rapidly). The high pitch at the beginning of pie is due to the high rate of airflow for the [ph], which continues into the beginning of the vowel, producing a higher rate of vibration of the vocal folds.
It was likely that, as in the case of the four subjects producing questions described earlier, the pitch variations in this speaker's Chi nese words in citation form were produced by the variations in subglottal pressure. These experiments show that meaningful pitch changes in speech can be produced in very different ways. Some speakers use primarily laryngeal muscles, others place greater emphasis on subglottal pres sure, and some speakers use both systems in varying degrees. When there are different ways of achieving the same result, it is best to regard the result as the goal, and regard the way of achieving it as a lower level set of possibilities.
The speaker recorded 16 disyllablic words, each representing a possible sequence of the four tones of Putonghua. At the same time, his subglottal pressure was monitored by a balloon in the esophagus attached to a pressure sensor. There was a very high cor relation between the pitch curves and the subglottal pressure curves. It was likely that, as in the case of the four subjects producing questions described earlier, the pitch variations in this speaker's Chi nese words in citation form were produced by the variations in subglottal pressure.