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By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Miklos Haraszti

Web filtering, censorship of web pages, and on-line surveillance are expanding in scale, scope, and class around the globe, in democratic international locations in addition to in authoritarian states. the 1st new release of net controls consisted mostly of establishing firewalls at key net gateways; China's recognized ''Great Firewall of China'' is without doubt one of the first nationwide web filtering platforms. this present day the hot instruments for net controls which are rising transcend mere denial of data. those new strategies, which goal to normalize (or even legalize) web regulate, comprise distinctive viruses and the strategically timed deployment of dispensed denial-of-service (DDoS) assaults, surveillance at key issues of the Internet's infrastructure, take-down notices, stringent phrases of utilization regulations, and nationwide info shaping thoughts. entry managed experiences in this new normative terrain. The booklet, a undertaking from the OpenNet Initiative (ONI), a collaboration of the Citizen Lab on the collage of Toronto's Munk Centre for overseas experiences, Harvard's Berkman heart for web and Society, and the SecDev team, deals six titanic chapters that research net regulate in either Western and japanese Europe and a piece of shorter nearby stories and nation profiles drawn from fabric collected by means of the ONI all over the world via a mix of technical interrogation and box examine tools. Chapter authors: Ronald Deibert, Colin Maclay, John Palfrey, Hal Roberts, Rafal Rohozinski, Nart Villeneuve, Ethan Zuckerman details Revolution and worldwide Politics sequence

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These technologies have the potential to enable regime change, as demonstrated by the eponymous color revolutions in Ukraine, Georgia, and Kyrgyzstan. By the same token, state actors have also come to recognize that these technologies make opposition movements vulnerable, and that disruption, intimidation, and disinformation can also cause these movements to fragment and fail. The failure of opposition movements in Belarus and Azerbaijan to ignite a wider social mobilization, along with the role that targeted information controls played in fragmenting and limiting the effectiveness of these movements, also points to the possible trajectory in which controls aimed at Russian cyberspace may be moving.

More significant yet than its impressive growth has been the emergence of RUNET at the center of Russian popular culture. Internet memes and jokes once marginalized to the community of computer specialists and aficionados are now in the mainstream of popular culture. For example, Preved Medved, an allusion to primitive cartoon of a bear surprising a couple having sex in a field and shouting preved (a deliberate misspelling of privet—a greeting, and medved—bear) has become a cultural icon, showing up on the cover of mainstream journals, in advertisements, and even, as a joke, in a question put to President Putin.

31. htm. 32. com/essays/2008/august/chinas-guerrilla-war-for-the-web. 33. See the China country profile in this volume. 3 The EU Data Retention Directive in an Era of Internet Surveillance Hal Roberts and John Palfrey Introduction The European Union (EU) enacted a directive on data retention in 2007 that requires all member countries to mandate the retention by telecom companies of the sender, recipient, and time of every Internet or other telecom communication. The directive requires the collection of the Internet Protocol (IP) address, user ID, phone number, name, and address of every sender and recipient, but explicitly excludes (but does not forbid) the monitoring of content itself.

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