New PDF release: Access to Medicine in the Global Economy: International

By Cynthia Ho

Entry to medication is a subject of common curiosity. even if, a few concerns that influence such entry are almost immediately inadequately understood. specifically, foreign legislation require such a lot international locations to supply patents on medications, leading to top rate costs that restrict entry. In entry to drugs within the worldwide economic system, Professor Cynthia Ho explains such legislation and their influence for a various workforce of readers, from students and coverage makers to scholars in numerous disciplines. This booklet explains and translates very important overseas agreements, starting with the landmark contract on exchange comparable points of highbrow estate (TRIPS), but in addition together with more moderen loose exchange agreements and the pending Anti-Counterfeiting alternate contract (ACTA). Professor Ho addresses arguable subject matters, equivalent to while a country grants a mandatory license, in addition to no matter if a kingdom could droop in-transit regular items. The publication additionally discusses how patent-like rights (such as "data exclusivity") hinder lower-cost widely used drugs from moving into and offers recommendations for minimizing the damage of such rights. transparent causes and diagrams, commonly asked questions, and case reports make those issues obtainable to any reader. The case stories additionally offer a conception of patent views that is helping clarify why entry to medication, notwithstanding a common objective, continues to be elusive in perform. The e-book goals to supply an enormous first step towards eventual practicable ideas by means of selling a greater knowing of present and destiny legislation that impression entry to drugs.

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Extra info for Access to Medicine in the Global Economy: International Agreements on Patents and Related Rights

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56 To the extent other countries have similar conditions, developed drugs will also treat their needs. For example, all countries need drugs to treat heart disease, hypertension, and cancer. pdf. , Peter Hammer, Differential Pricing of Essential AIDS Drugs: Markets, Politics and Public Health, 5 J Int’l Econ. L. 883, 888 (2002) (noting that only the wealthiest 10% of citizens in developing countries typically purchase drugs—and that these drugs are often sold at higher prices than in developed countries).

This section begins with an overview of relevant legal tools. Then, the intersection between patent and regulatory approval is revisited to give a sense of the differing time periods and issues involved. Finally, the section ends with a discussion of how development, legal, and marketing strategies all work together to promote and sustain commercial success for drugs. a. legal toolbox of protection Several types of legal protections may protect the commercial viability of a drug. Patents are most commonly associated with protecting new drugs and often considered the most valuable.

L. Rev. 1, 1 (2005) (noting that generic drug entry means prices that are 25 to 50% lower; patent expiration and generic entry signal that the “days of recouping expenses and reaping profits are over”); see also Grabowski & Vernon, supra note 46 (noting that prices drop to thirtyseven percent of original level two years after the entry of generic manufacturers). , Benjamin G. 8% of patients on Prozac switched to the generic form, while Eli Lilly’s net company profits dropped 22%). From Conception to Commercial Success 29 pany with a successful blockbuster drug may also try to sustain blockbuster revenues by developing a close chemical variant.

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