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By C. G. Pantano, J. F. Kelso, M. J. Suscavage (auth.), David R. Rossington, Robert A. Condrate, Robert L. Snyder (eds.)

The characterization of fabrics and phenomena has traditionally been the crucial trouble to the improvement in each one region of technology. as soon as what we're gazing is easily outlined, a theoretical research quickly follows. smooth theories of chemical bonding didn't evolve until eventually the equipment of analytical chemistry had improved to some degree the place the majority stoichiometry of chemicals used to be firmly tested. the good development made in this century in realizing chemistry has without delay from the advance of an analytical chemistry in accordance with the Dalton assumption of a number of proportions. It has merely develop into obvious lately that the extension of our realizing of fabrics hinges on their non-stoichiometric nature. the realm of non-Daltonian chemistry is particularly poorly understood at the moment due to our inability to exactly signify it. The emergence of fabrics technology has basically simply happened with our attractiveness of results, that have been suggestion formerly to be minor adaptations from ideality, because the critical phenomena controlling homes. the next move within the historic evolution of fabrics technological know-how needs to be the advance of instruments to signify the usually refined phenomena which make sure houses of fabrics. a number of the discussions of instrumental recommendations awarded during this publication are very good summaries for the state of the art of fabrics characterization at this fairly serious degree of fabrics technological know-how. the applying of the instruments defined right here, and people but to be built, holds the main to the improvement of this little one right into a mature science.

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Fig. 8 shows an ISS analysis of ceramic powders by Brongersma et al. 14 The addition of a small amount of Mo0 3 to the Bi 2Mo0 6 catalysts strongly increases its catalytic activity for oxidation of propene CH3CH:CH2 to acrolein CH2:CHCHO, whereas a small addition of Bi 20 3 has the opposite effect. Fig. 8 shows that a small change in the bulk concentration of Mo or Bi has a pronounced effect on the surface composition of these catalysts. The Bi concentration is strongly depressed at the surface with 4% Mo03 addition and strongly enhanced with 4% Bi203 addition.

9 E/Eo Fig. 11 The ISS spectra measured under identical conditions for three different glass compositions. 5 KeV 5 KaO' 2 NCitO . XSiOI NGtO . • o Fig. 20 CaO . 6SiOz Ceo . 50 The relationship between the bulk atomic ratio of alkali to oxygen and the ratio of the alkali to oxygen ISS signals for various glass compositions (R = Na or K). 34 C. G. PANTANO ET AL. Unfortunately, hydrogen cannot be detected with conventional ISS analyses. It may be especially significant that Lacharme et al. [31] also observed a local alkali-enrichment at the fracture surfaces of soda-silica and potassia-silica glasses.

PANTANO ET AL. 21. P. A. Dench, NPL Report Chern. 82 (1978). 22. H. J. Del, and G. Tomand1, G1astechn. Ber. 49:170 (1976). 23. S. Kim and N. Winograd, Surf. Sci. 43:625 (1974). 24. R. Kelly, Nuc1. Instr. Meth. 182/183:351 (1981). 25. H. Andersen, SPIG 1980 (B. , Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Beograd, Yugoslavia). 26. H. Bach, Radiation Effects 28:215 (1976). 27. W. Coburn and E. Kay, IBM Research Report No. RJ-1388, May 10, 1974. 28. J. A. Lommen, Comm. Am. Ceram. Soc. C-80 (June 1982).

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